COMP 100 Final Exam Study Guide
The final exam will be given in our classroom Wednesday March 17 (St. Patrick's Day!) from 10:30 am to 12:30 pm.
The exam is comprehensive, closed-book, closed-notes, has 125 points, and is worth 25% of your grade.
have the entire exam period to take the exam. The exam will be a combination of multiple choice, matching and short
Note: I hand out two versions of the exam. They differ only in the order of questions.
The students on your left and right
will have the other version.
Expect a little more weight on topics we have covered since the second exam.
Some questions will come directly from the first two exams (with minor alteration), so I recommend you study them.
Lecture notes are available at http://faculty.otterbein.edu/PSanderson/COMP100/schedule.html
By posting your journal comments, I've discovered that a form of
Jeopardy!® has evolved -- many of
your comments are the answers to exam questions! The Journal page
is a great exam study resource.
- Jacquard looms of 1800 were like "stored program" computers because the patterns of holes in punched cards determined the woven pattern; change the cards, different patterns
- Charles Babbage designed mechanical computers in the 1840's
- Ada Augusta Byron was the world's first computer programmer because she designed instructions to control Babbage's Analytical engine
- Before World War II, "computer" was defined as a person. After the war, it was defined as a machine
- The ENIAC was an 1940's electronic computer built from vacuum tubes, which were 1000 times faster than relays
- Mathematician John von Neumann developed the structure for modern computers: (1) processor, (2) memory to
hold both data and instructions, and (3) input and output devices for communication
- Alan Turing is most well known for the Turing test:
If you converse using keyboard and monitor with remote entity and think it to be human, then if
it turns out to be a machine the machine can be considered to have intelligence
- Generations of electronic computers: vacuum tubes, then transistors, then integrated circuits (chips)
- "Moore's Law" says the number of elements on a fixed size chip can be doubled about every two years. Smaller, more powerful, faster!
- how to count using binary numbers
- what kinds of things are stored in binary (everything!)
- units of measure such as bits, bytes, hertz, kilo-, mega-, giga-
- typical input and output devices
- Main processor is called Central Processing Unit (CPU) and it runs at 2-3 gigahertz (GHz)
- main memory is very fast but "volatile", loses contents when shut off.
- Flash memory, disk drives, CDs, DVDs are all non-volatile.
- some basics of how digital cameras work
- some basics of how monitors and printers work
- the RGB and CMY color systems for monitors and printers, respectively
- Images compressed using JPEG, sound compressed using MP3. Both reduce to 1/10 original size
but information is lost ("lossy").
- Internet originated in 1969 with the ARPANET
- The Web was invented in 1989, 20 years later
- Internet is a delivery service like FedEx. The Web as one type of package it can deliver.
- Email, chat, instant messaging, file downloading, online games, and online news
all were available on the Internet before the Web
- Newer Internet services: Webcasts, blogs, wiki, social networking, e-commerce and VoIP.
- Web browsers and servers communicate using the HTTP protocol. HTTPS is "secure" HTTP, so you can safely transmit private data.
- Search engines have two parts: (1) web "spiders" that automatically request web pages and then catalog
their contents into a database, and (2) the part that searches the database
for content that matches your request.
- Cookies are little files on your hard drive put there by web sites. They contain information
about your past use of their site. Most people consider them convenient and harmless
- Spyware is software that monitors your computer usage. Some is harmless but annoying
like adware. Some is harmful because it logs your keystrokes and can steal private data you type.
- Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an IP address
- The DNS service translates text addresses like www.amazon.com into their correct IP addresses.
- Wired access to the Internet includes: dialup, DSL, Cable, and LAN. Dialup is slow,
DSL and Cable offer comparable performance, and LAN available within an organization
- Wireless access to the Internet includes: satellite, cell-based, and Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi is
only an indirect connection
- Web pages are written in a language called Hypertext Markup Language, or HTML.
- Be able to recognize some common HTML tags.
- Web browsers translate the HTML into what is displayed.
Ethical Issues (Technology In Focus between chapters 3 and 4)
- digital divide : what it is, its causes, remedies
- online medical information : benefits and risks
- boundaries of the Internet : each nation has its own laws and constitution; do they apply to an Internet without national boundaries?
- what the stored program concept is (program is stored in memory with data)
- the distinctions between application and system software, with examples
- basic knowledge of various application categories: productivity, media, entertainment, business
- what cloud computing is
- difference between commercial software, shareware, and freeware
- software ownership and licensing
- what a spreadsheet is
- significance of spreadsheet software in the history of the PC
- spreadsheet terminology (workbook, worksheet, cell, row, column, etc)
- what cells can contain (text labels, numeric values, formulas)
- what formulas are and what causes them to be recalculated
- automatic formula recalculation permits easy exploration of "what if" questions
- what a function is and how to use one
- how to reference a cell or a range of cells on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet
- what happens to cell references when you copy/paste a formula
- distinction between relative and absolute cell references
- basic charting concepts and guidelines
- what system software is and does (operating system)
- single-task and multi-tasking operating sytems, and how multiple tasks share the CPU
- the basic booting process
- textual (DOS, Linux) versus graphical (Mac, Windows) styles of operating system user interface
- OS duty: processor (CPU) management and multi-tasking through time-slicing,
- OS duty: memory (RAM) management and multi-tasking through space-slicing
- OS duty: disk management for file and folder storage
- OS duty: device management through drivers, which are external to the OS and provided by device manufacturer
- Components of a computer, their acronyms, and what they do
- The machine (instruction) cycle: fetch, decode, execute, store
- Characteristics of various storage devices: RAM, disk, CD/DVD
- RAM is volatile. Disk, flash, CD, DVD are not
- RAM is a million times faster than hard drives
- RAM and flash are solid state - no moving parts
- Hard drives, floppies and tape are magnetic
- CDs and DVDs are optical
- Basic organization of a hard drive: tracks, sectors, blocks. rotational and seek delay
- what a database is
- the problems of inconsistent and redundant data
- database terminology (table, record, field, key field, query, etc)
- database table looks much like a spreadsheet's worksheet but similarity ends there
- "normalizing" is process of making sure data are not unnecessarily duplicated
- importance of keeping database records sorted (permits much faster searching; imagine a phone book that's not sorted!)
- what a relational database is
- what SQL is
- basic problem solving approach (understand problem, device plan, carry out plan, evaluate)
- what top-down design is and when it is needed (break to simpler subproblems, solve them, combine solutions)
- basic software development activities: investigation, analysis, design, programming, maintenance, testing
- Be able to point out examples of sequence, selection and iteration, given an example Scratch program.
- Basic Scratch concepts: sprite, costume, script, stage, block.
- LAN is "Local Area Network" such as your home, office, organization, school
- WAN is "Wide Area Network" such as the Internet
- LAN (Ethernet) network structure and operation
- Transmission media and characteristics: twisted pair, coax, fiber optic, wireless
- The difference between client-server applications(e.g. web browsing) and peer-to-peer applications (e.g. Limewire file sharing)
- The role of network interface cards
- Basic home network structures, including extension through routers
- Difference between Wireless Access Point and Wireless Router in a home network
- What malware is
- what spyware and phishing are, and how they are used to commit fraud and theft
- What viruses, worms, Trojan horses can do, and how you get them and prevent them.
- What denial-of-service attacks are, and how zombies contribute
- What a firewall is
- Risks of WiFi usage in public places
- What the Turing test for AI is (see Giant Brains, above).
- The difference between the brain and the mind (analogy of brain to hardware and mind to software).
- Two approaches to solving AI: imitate the structure and operations of the brain, imitate outward behaviors
- What a knowledge base is, and what it consists of (facts and rules).
- One or two practical applications of AI (expert systems, neural networks, robots)
Study hard and good luck!